A Reported Picture of the Prophet & Abu Bakr from Judaeo-Christian Times

It is reported from the Companion Jubayr b. Muṭʿim – Allāh be pleased with him – that he said:

I once travelled to Shām for trade. When I reached lower Shām a man from the People of the Book met me and asked me, “Is there amongst you a man who is a Prophet?” I replied, “Yes.” He then asked, Would you recognise his image if you saw it?” I replied, “Yes.” He then admitted me into a house in which there were images, but I did not see an image of the Prophet ﷺ. While I was there, another man from them entered upon us and asked us “What are you doing?” So we informed him. He then took us to his home, and as soon as I entered I saw the image of the Prophet ﷺ and it showed a man holding on to the heel of the Prophet ﷺ. I asked, “Who is this man holding his heel?” He replied, “There was no prophet except that after him came another prophet, except this prophet, for there is no prophet after him. And this is the khalīfah after him.” And I saw that it looked like Abū Bakr – Allāh be pleased with him.

Ibn Kathīr, Al-Tafsīr, in the commentary of 7:157:

Those who follow the Messenger, the unlettered prophet, whom they find written in what they have of the Torah and the Gospel, who enjoins upon them what is right and forbids them what is wrong and makes lawful for them the good things and prohibits for them the evil and relieves them of their burden and the shackles which were upon them. So they who have believed in him, honored him, supported him and followed the light which was sent down with him – it is those who will be the successful.

Meaning of Al-Aʿrāf: 157.

Stupid: Asking for Quran without Sunnah

It is reported that ‘Imrān b. Husayn – Allāh be pleased with him – was once relating hadīth amongst a group of people, when a man said:

Leave this and give us something from the Book of Allāh. ‘Imrān said, “You are a dunce (stupid). Do you find in the Book of Allāh details of prayer. Do you find in the Book of Allāh details of fasting!? This Qur`ān prescribes those matters, and the Sunnah explains them.”

Al-Harawī, Dham Al-Kalām article 244, et al with various wordings.

The Three Men and the Valley [example of the munafiq]

It is reported that ‘Abdullâh b. Mas’ûd – Allâh be pleased with him – said:

The example of the believer, the unbeliever and the hypocrite is that of three people who arrived at a valley. One of them descended and passed through to the other side. One of them descended until he reached half way, when the third man on the edge of the valley called to him, “Woe to you, where are you going? You will die. Come back.” The man who made it to the other side called to him, “Come and be saved.” So [the man in the middle of the valley] kept looking back and forth at the two [on each side of the valley], when a flood came into the valley and drowned him. The man who passed through to the other side is the believer; the one who drowned is the munâfiq (hypocrite) –

مُّذَبْذَبِينَ بَيْنَ ذَٰلِكَ لَآ إِلَىٰ هَـٰٓؤُلَآءِ وَلَآ إِلَىٰ هَـٰٓؤُلَآءِ ۚ

[The Hypocrites] sway between this and that, neither [fully] with the believers nor with the unbelievers.

Quran 4:143

And the one who remained at the edge of the valley [not  able to escape the flood and pass] is the kâfir (unbeliever).

Ibn Abî Hâtim, Al-Tafsîr article 6144.

The Trick of the Eyes

يَعْلَمُ خَآئِنَةَ ٱلْأَعْيُنِ وَمَا تُخْفِى ٱلصُّدُورُ

Allah knows the fraud of the eyes, and all that the breasts conceal [Quran, Ghâfir (40):19]

It is reported that ‘Abdullâh b. ‘Abbâs – Allâh be pleased with him – said, explaining this verse:

A man is with a group of people when a woman passes. He shows them that he has lowered his gaze from looking at her. But when he sees they are not paying attention, he looks at her. If he fears they will notice, he lowers his gaze, but Allâh has seen in his heart that he wishes he could see her body (private areas).

Hunâd b. Al-Sarî, Al-Zuhd article 1428.

How the Salaf studied the Quran

Abdullâh b. Mas’ûd – Allâh be pleased with him – said:

When a man amongst us learned ten verses [of the Quran], he would not move on [to the next verses] until he had understood their meanings and how to act by them.

Al-Tabarî, Al-Tafsîr 1:80. Shaykh Ahmad Shâkir graded its chain of transmission sahîh.

Abû ‘Abd Al-Rahmân Al-Sulamî said:

Those who used to teach us the Quran (the Companions) told us that they used to learn the Quran from the Prophet – Allâh’s peace and blessings be upon him; when they had learnt ten verses they would not move on until they put into practice what was in them. So we learnt knowledge and deeds (implementation) together.

Ibid. Shaykh Ahmad Shâkir graded its chain of transmission sahîh also.