Ramadan

The Whole Year for Ramadan

It is reported that Muʿlā b. Al-Faḍl – Allāh have mercy on him – said:

They (the Salaf) used to supplicate to Allāh for six months asking Him to get them to the month of Ramaḍān; and they used to supplicate for six months that Allāh accept [their fasting and other worship in Ramaḍān].

Abul-Qāsim Al-Aṣbahānī, Al-Targhīb wa Al-Tarhīb article 1761.

Sincere Faith

It is reported that Abū Hurayrah – Allāh be pleased with him – said:

Three things are from Imān: when a man has nocturnal emission during a cold night, so he gets up – only Allāh sees him, and has a full wash; when a person fasts on a hot day; and when a man prays in a barren land, where none but Alāh sees him.

Al-Bayhaqī, Shu’ab Al-Īmān article 51

Three Sunan of Eid Al-Fitr

Imām Saʿīd b. Al-Musayyib – Allāh have mercy on him – said:

The Sunnah of Al-Fiṭr consists of three things: Walking to the prayer place (muṣallā), eating before leaving [for the prayer] and taking a full bath.

Al-Firyābī, Aḥkām Al-ʿEidayn #18. Shaykh Al-Albānī graded its chain of transmission ṣaḥīḥ in Irwāʾ Al-Ghalīl 3:104.

Umar’s Instructions on the First Night of Ramadan

It is reported that on the first night of Ramadân, ‘Umar – Allâh be pleased with him – would pray Maghrib, then say (to the people):

Sit down. Then he would give a small address: Verily the fasting of this month has been made a duty upon you, and standing in night prayer has not been made a duty upon you, but those amongst you who can stand in prayer should do so, for it is from the extra good deeds about which Allâh told us: so whoever cannot stand in prayer, let him sleep on his bed.

And beware of saying: I will fast if so and so fasts and I will stand in night prayer if so and so stands in prayer. Whoever fasts or stands in night prayer, he must make this for Allâh. And you should know that you are in prayer as long as you are waiting for a prayer.

Minimize any vain or false speech in the houses of Allâh (mosques; he said this two or three times). Let none of you fast a few days before the month (in order to avoid missing the beginning of the month; he said this three times). And do not fast until you see [the crescent of the new month] unless it is overcast. If it is overcast, count [the previous month] as 30 days. Then do not break your fasts until you see the night upon the mountain (i.e. you are sure the sun has set).

‘Abd Al-Razzâq Al-San’ânî, Al-Musannaf article 7748.

Sinning while fasting [does it break the fast?]

It is reported that ‘Umar – Allâh be pleased with him – said:

Fasting does not mean keeping away from only food and drink, it also means keeping away from lying, falsehood, inanity and swearing [by Allâh without need].

It is reported that Ibrâhîm Al-Nakha’î – Allâh have mercy on him – said:

They used to say: lying breaks the fast.

It is reported that Mujâhid – Allâh have mercy on him – said:

There are two practices, if a person can keep himself from them, his fast will be secured for him: backbiting and lying.

It is related that Abul-‘Âliyah – Allâh have mercy on him – said:

The fasting person is in a state of worship as long as he does not backbite. [1]

It is reported that Hafsah bint Sîrîn – Allâh have mercy on her – said:

Fasting is a shield as long as one does not tear it, and tearing it is when you backbite. [2]

It is reported that Anas b. Mâlik – Allâh be pleased with him – said:

If the fasting person backbites, his fast is broken. [3]

Notes

Explaining the meaning of sins breaking the fast, Shaykh Al-Islâm Ibn Taymîyah – Allâh have mercy on him – states: [4]

It is related from some of the Salaf that backbiting, tale carrying and the likes break the fast, and it is mentioned as one opinion in the madhab of Imâm Ahmad. The final word on this issue is that Allâh the Exalted commanded people to fast in order to achieve piety (taqwâ), and Allâh’s Messenger – praise and peace of Allâh be upon him – stated:

Whoever does not leave off false speech and acting by it; then Allâh is not in need of him abandoning his food and drink.

So if the fasting person does not achieve piety, he has not achieved what is intended through fasting, and so the reward of [his] fast will decrease in accordance [with how much he has gone against the intended goal, i.e. commensurate with his sins].

Righteous deeds have two intended goals: gaining reward and avoiding punishment. If a person fasts while also doing forbidden things, like backbiting, carrying tales between people or consuming what is forbidden and so on, he loses the reward.

Thus, when the imams say [backbiting etc.] does not break the fast, it means that the person who sins is not punished in the way a person who openly breaks his fast would be punished.

And those who said it does break the fast in the sense that the person has not achieved the intended goal behind fasting, or in the sense that he has lost the reward for fasting, then this statement is in agreement with the position of the imams.

One who says it breaks the fast in the sense that the person is to be punished for leaving [the fast], then he is in contradiction to the imams.

Conclusion

A person who disobeys Allâh while fasting hasn’t truly grasped the intent behind fasting. The real goal is to achieve piety and obedience of Allâh through the abandonment of food, drink and sin. Although a person who backbites, lies or does other sins is not considered to have physically broken his fast, he loses the reward of fasting and in this sense he has broken his fast.

Allâh knows best.

[1] Ibn Abî Al-Shaybah, Al-Musannaf articles 8975, 8980, 8981 and 8982.

[2] ‘Abd Al-Razzâq Al-San’ânî, Al-Musannaf articles 8975.

[3] Hunâd b. Al-Saree, Al-Zuhd article 1204.

[4] Badr Al-Dîn Al-Ba’lî. Mukhtasar Al-Fatâwâ Al-Masrîyah pp288, 289. 1st edn. 1418H. Dâr Al-Kutub Al-‘Ilmîyah. Beirut, Lebanon.