names and attributes of Allah

We Take Our Religion from the Companions

ʿAbbād b. Al-ʿAwwām narrates:

Sharīk b. ʿAbdillāh came to us around fifty years ago, and we said to him, “O Abū ʿAbdillāh, here amongst us there are people from the Muʿtazilah who reject these āḥādīth [like]: ‘Allāh descends to the lowest heaven’, and ‘the people of Jannah will see their Lord’. So Sharīk narrated to me around ten such narrations, then said: ‘As for us, we have taken our religion from the sons of the Tābiʿīn, from the Ṣaḥābah. Who have they taken from?’”

Al-Ḏahabī, Al-ʿUluw. Graded ṣaḥīḥ by Al-Albānī in Mukhtaṣar Al-ʿUluw article 146.

The Merit of Night Prayer when others Sleep

It is reported that ‘Abdullāh b. Masʿūd said:

Allāh the Mighty and Sublime laughs at two men [being pleased with them]: a man who stands in the middle of the night while his family sleeps; he purifies himself and stands in prayer, so Allāh laughs at him. And a man who meets the enemy [in battle] and his comrades are defeated; but he stands his ground until Allāh the Mighty and Sublime gives him martyrdom.

Abū Bakr Al-Ājurrī, Faḍl Qiyām Al-Layl, article 9.

Note: A longer version of this narration is reported from Allāh’s Messenger himself – praise and peace be upon him – in the Musnad of Aḥmad and other collections. Shaykh Al-Albānī grades it good based on other corroboratory reports (hasan lighayrihi). See Ṣaḥīḥ Al-Targhīb wa Al-Tarhīb article 630.

Falsehood that leads to Falsehood [Al-Kalam, dialectical, speculative theology]

Abd Al-Raḥmān b. Mahdī reports:

I entered upon Mālik b. Anas when a man was asking him about the Qur`ān. [Imām Mālik] said, “Perhaps you are a companion of  Amr b. ‘Ubayd. May Allāh curse ‘Amr, for he was the one who innovated this bid’ah of Kalām  . If Kalām was knowledge, the Companions and their Followers would have spoken it, like they spoke about the regulations and laws [of Islam]. But [Kalām] is falsehood that leads to falsehood.”

Abul-Faḍl Al-Muqri`Al-Rāzī, Aḥādīth fī Dham Al-Kalām wa Ahlihī p96.
Al-Harawī, Dham Al-Kalām wa Ahlihī no.874.

Umar b. Abd Al-Aziz on the Way of the Believers

Ibn Shihāb reports:

‘Umar b. ‘Abd Al-‘Azīz – Allah have mercy on him, said, “The Messenger of Allāh – Allāh’s peace and blessings be upon him – and the authorities (leaders of the Muslims, the Caliphs ) after him set certain ways and practices. To follow those ways is to believe in Allāh’s Book and to complete [ones] obedience of Him, and to be strong upon the religion of Allāh. It is not for anyone to alter those ways or change them for something else, and it is not for anyone to consider the views and opinions of those who contradict them. Whoever follows what [the Prophet and his Caliphs] laid down will be guided, whoever seeks enlightenment through it will be enlightened. But whoever contradicts those ways and follows a way other than the way of the Believers, Allāh the Mighty and Majestic will leave him in the path he has chosen and land him in Jahannam (Hell); and what an evil destination that is.'”

Al-Lālakā`ī, Shar Uṣūl I’tiqād Ahl Al-Sunnah 1:94.

Notes

In this statement, Caliph ‘Umar b. ‘Abd Al-Azīz affirms a number of important points related to the creed and methodology of Ahl Al-Sunnah wa Al-Jamā’ah – orthodox Islam:

  1. The path of guidance, the Sunnah, is what was laid down by the Prophet, as understood and implemented by the Rightly Guided Caliphs and Companions.
  2. For a person to truly believe in the Quran, and to be guided, he must adhere to this Sunnah and to it alone.
  3. A Muslim is not allowed to innovate in the religion or exchange any part of it for foreign beliefs and ideologies.
  4. True enlightenment and insight lies in adhering to this way.
  5. A Muslim is not supposed to be interested in and expose himself to the views and opinions of people who go against the Sunnah and way of the Salaf.
  6. Going against this way is to follow ‘a way other than the way of the Believers’ and take a path to Hell; a reference to Al-Quran 4:115 where this principle is evidenced.

This narration is recorded with variant wordings in numerous other sources. In a version recorded on the authority of Muttarrif b. ‘Abdillāh by Al-Qāḍī Abū Ya’lā (d458H) in Ibṭāl Al-Ta’wīl 1:52, it is stated that when those who ‘deflected the narrations speaking of the Ṣifāt’ (divine attributes of Allāh) were mentioned in the presence of Imām Mālik, he would quote this saying of Caliph ‘Umar b. ‘Abd Al-‘Azīz. In yet another report of this statement, the heretics being referred to are described as ‘the deviants in the religion.’