ʿAbdullāh b. ʿUmar

Lowering the Gaze

It is reported that Salmān Al-Fārsī – Allāh be pleased with him – said:

I would rather die and be resurrected, die and be resurrected, and again die and be resurrected than to see the private part of a Muslim’s body or for a Muslim to see mine.

Imām Aḥmad, Al-Zuhd p192. 1st ed. 1983. Dār Al-Kutub Al-‘Ilmīyah. Beirut, Lebanon.

It is reported that ‘Abdullāh b, ‘Umar – Allāh have mercy on him – said:

Verily, part of disregarding the trust upon you is to look inside [other people’s] apartments and houses.

Ibn Abī Al-Dunyā, Kitāb Al-Wara’ article 71.

It is reported that Anas b. Mālik – Allāh be pleased with him – said:

If a woman passes in front of you, lower your eyes until she has passed by.

Ibid. article 72.

It is reported that Al-‘Alā b. Ziyād – Allāh have mercy on him – said:

Let not your sight follow the nice looking back of a woman [as she passed], for indeed the look causes the desire in the heart.

Ibid. article 77.

It is reported on the authority of Al-Wakī’ b. Al-Jarrāḥ:

We went out one Eid with Sufyān Al-Thawrī and he said, “The first thing we will do on this day of ours is to lower our gaze.”

Ibid. article 66.

It is reported that Ḥassān b. Abī Sinān – Allāh have mercy on him – went out one Eid and when he returned home his wife said, “How many beautiful women have you looked at today?” After she kept asking him, he said, “Woe to you! I have looked at nothing but my toe from when I went out to when I returned to you.”

Ibid. article 68.

How the Salaf were (and weren’t) when hearing the Quran and Dhikr

It was said to ‘Ā`ishah – Allāh be pleased with her, “There are people who faint when they hear the Quran.” She said. “The Quran is nobler than to have people lose their minds from it. Rather, it [should be] as Allāh the Mighty and Sublime said:

Those who fear their Lord tremble with fear by it, then their skins and hearts settle to the remembrance of Allah. (Sūrah Al-Zumar: 23)

Abū ‘Ubayd Al-Qāsim b. Sallām, Faḍā`il Al-Qur`ān p214.

It is reported that ʿAbdullāh b. ‘Urwah b. Al-Zubayr said, “I asked my grandmother Asmā` (bint Abī Bakr) – Allāh be pleased with her, ‘How were the Companions of Allāh’s Messenger – Allāh peace and praise be upon him – when they heard the Quran?’ She replied, ‘their eyes would shed tears and they would tremble (with fear), as Allāh described them (in the Quran).’ I said, ‘There are some people here who, when they hear the Quran, fall down unconscious,’ She said, ‘I seek refuge with Allāh from the accursed Shayṭān.’”

Al-Bayhaqī, Shu’ab Al-Īmān 3:417; Ibn Al-Mubārak, Al-Zuhd wa Al-Raqā`iq 3:54 with a slightly variant wording.

It is also reported that Asmā` was asked, “Did any of the Salaf used to faint out of the fear of Allāh?” She replied, “No, but they used to cry.”

Al-Qāsim b. Salām, op. cit. p214.

It is reported that Ibn ʿUmar – Allāh be pleased with him – once passed by a man from Iraq who had dropped unconscious. He asked, “What is wrong with him?” [People] replied, “When the Quran is recited to him or he hears the remembrance of Allāh he falls unconscious out of his fear of Allāh.” Ibn ʿUmar said, “We fear Allāh and we do not drop unconscious!”

Ibid p214; Al-Baghawī in his Tafsīr, Sūrah Al-Zumar: 23 with a slightly variant wording.

It is reported that Anas b. Mālik was asked about people who drop unconscious when the Quran is recited to them. He said, “That is the behavior of the Khawārij.”

Al-Qāsim b. Salām, op. cit. p215.

It is reported that Muḥammad b. Sīrīn said, having been asked about a man who drops unconscious when the Quran is recited to him, “Make an appointment between us and him, we will sit on a wall, and the Quran – from beginning to end – will be recited unto him. If he falls off the wall, he is as he claims.”

Ibid., Al-Baghawī, op. cit.

The Weight of the Quran

It is reported that Ibn ʿUmar – Allāh be pleased with him – said, “We were the beginning [the heads] of this Ummah, and perhaps a man from the best of the Companions of Allāh’s Messenger – Allāh’s peace and blessings be upon him – and the most righteous amongst them could maintain only one chapter of the Qur`ān or thereabouts. For the Qur`ān was weighty upon them, and they were given knowledge of it or action based on it. But the last of this Ummah will find the Qur`ān light [and easy] – the child and the non-Arab will recite it, without possessing any knowledge about it.”

Al-Harawī, Dhamm Al-Kalām wa Ahlihī Vol. 5 p144.

Going out to Spread Greetings

Al-Ṭufayl b. Ubay b. Ka’b narrated that he used to come to ʿAbdullāh b. ʿUmar and go with him to the market. He said, “Whenever we went to the market, ʿAbdullāh b. ʿUmar would never pass a cheap goods merchant, a seller, a poor person or anyone else except that he would greet them with salāms.” He continued, “So I came to him one day and he asked me to go to the market with him. I said, ‘And what are you going to do at the market? You never stop to buy anything, you never ask about goods, you never price anything and you never sit in the market gatherings. Sit with us here and we can talk. So he said to me, ‘O Abū Baṭn (i.e. possessor of the belly; Al-Ṭufayl had a big belly)! We only go out for salāms, to greet those we meet.’’”

Al-Bukhārī, Al-Adab Al-Mufrad, Al-Albānī’s Ṣaḥīḥ Al-Adab Al-Mufrad Vol. 1 p395.

Learn Arabic, Speak Arabic

One of the reported instructions ʿUmar wrote to Abū Mūsā Al-Ash’arī and those under his governance during the former’s Caliphate was, “Seek knowledge and understanding of (fiqh) the Sunnah and seek knowledge and understanding of Arabic.”

Ibn Abī Shaybah, Al-Muṣannaf Vol.6 p126.

It is reported that he said, “Learn Arabic, for it strengthens the intelligence and increases one’s noble conduct (al-murū`ah).”

Al-Bayhaqī, Shu’ab Al-Īmān Vol.4 p187.

It is also reported that he said, “Do not learn the language of the non-Arabs, and do not enter upon them in their churches on their festivals, for indeed wrath descends upon them.”

ʿAbd Al-Razzāq Al-Ṣan’ānī, Al-Muṣannaf Vol.1 p411.

It is also reported that he was once circumambulating the Ka’bah when he heard two men speaking in a language other than Arabic behind him. He turned to them and said, “Find some way to learn Arabic.”

ʿAbd Al-Razzāq Al-Ṣan’ānī, Al-Muṣannaf Vol.5 p496.

It is reported that Ubay b. Ka’b – Allāh be pleased with him – said, “Learn Arabic just as you learn to memorize the Qurān.”

Ibn Abī Shaybah, Al-Muṣannaf Vol.7 p150.

It is reported that Ibn ʿUmar – Allāh be pleased with them – used to hit his children for making language errors.

Tahdhīb Al-Tahdhīb Vol.9 p292.

It is reported that Shu’bah – Allāh have mercy on him – said, “Learn Arabic, for it increases the intelligence.”

Tahdhīb Al-Tahdhīb Vol.4 p303.

It is reported that ‘Attā b. Abī Rabāḥ – Allāh have mercy on him – said, “I wish I were fluent in Arabic,” when he was ninety years old.

Al-Dhahabī, Siyar A’lām Al-Nubalā`, in his biography of ‘Attā b. Abī Rabāh.

It is reported that Ibn Shubrumah – Allāh have mercy on him – said, “Men have never worn a garment more beautiful than Arabic.”

Al-Bayhaqī, Shu’ab Al-Īmān Vol.4 p197.